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Ethics

Business Ethics in the World of Corporate Governance

Executive Summary

All businesses are grey. A loaded statement but one which befits today’s business milieu. The debate is on the shades of the color and not the color itself. Wealth creation precedes wealth distribution, an unalterable sequence. There is a growing realization that former belongs to the exclusive domain of business and the latter to a shared domain. Businesses demand autonomy from others to create wealth and others demand accountability from businesses for the wealth created. Both, autonomy and accountability are worthless in isolation. Accountable autonomy is the panacea. Current business landscape is unprecedented. It is a world where the ends and not the means are brought in to question leading to business ethics boiling down to a personal and not an organizational call, taken everyday by millions, closer to the ground to succeed and more importantly survive.

All the stakeholders-management, employees, board, investors and society are asserting their influence simultaneously. A historical perspective on corporate governance suggests different approaches- (organization+stakeholder)-control approach and capital-market control approach dominating at different times and in different geographies. Both approaches have come alive globally and are trying to pip each other.

India Inc. has moved away from regulation toward latitude since early 1990’s and with the markets coming into their own, the governance style seems to be headed the capital-market control way.

Board of Directors, the venerable interface has to ensure accountable autonomy by fostering its own culture which includes promoting constructive dissatisfaction, actively monitoring the firm’s risk policies and practices, not contingent on having considerable expertise in the areas concerned and avoiding soft conflicts.

Enron and other scandals happened at the best of times and at the worst of times. The aftermath ensured till then increasingly becoming adventurous management’s retreat, activism in boards, dispelled smugness of investors and an acknowledgment of fast becoming oblivious society’s rights and responsibilities. Business initiatives with social spin-offs and not the other way around initiatives are welcome as the need is of responsible corporates and not of over-hyped corporate social responsibility.

A culture, undoubtedly percolating from the top echelons fostering openness and adherence to laws is required.

It has to be appreciated by everyone involved but its adoption has to be voluntary and customizable. The organizations should disseminate the information like practices, policies and risk appetite needed to take a fair call and not accord the right to itself of other stakeholders primarily markets to judge the firm. A culture of transparency starts where regulation ends in achieving accountable autonomy. Every stakeholder must understand that she has a role to play and has certain rights and responsibilities. Separations of powers are difficult to achieve but are crucial for the organization to do the right business and for others to ensure that the former does it the right way as the eternal bottom-line is- the business has and will always be managed by executives, investors have and will always be the ultimate decision making authority on investing and society has and will always be affected by the businesses.

Introduction

The world operates like a simple pendulum. Its microcosm, the business world is no exception. One extreme is autonomy and the other is accountability. It is hard to strike a balance between the two. Both are benign in their own space but too much of a good thing is also detrimental. Business environment has and will keep on testing both extremes. When one extreme is about to be reached, then its dire consequences are realized and businesses move back from the brink. The force which pulls them back from the disaster is so potent that it adds tremendous momentum till the other extreme is tested. This process is eternal and gives businesses a grey shade, blurring the line between right and wrong. After the corporate scandals that rocked the world in 2001-02, the pendulum has swung in the favor of accountability. This shift has happened at a time when the businesses around the world are about to peak. Hitherto unexplored markets are being forayed by organizations worldwide. Issues of business ethics, right and wrong, and corporate governance are hot debating points across the business landscape. All parties- management, board, employees, shareholders, regulators and community are asserting their presence. All of them have to collectively make a decisive move as both regulation and latitude are looking equally enticing and as doing the right things is mulling on the imperative of doing things the right way. The world is waiting!

Business Ethics- Individual’s or Organization’s

Dis-connect between an employee and the ground realities widen as she moves up the ladder. Today, businesses are very target driven. At each level, targets are set and are interlinked. The performance of one’s superior is determined by one’s own performance and this process goes on till the very top echelons. Till such time one meets or surpasses the targets no questions are asked on the way of achieving those and disconnect mentioned earlier plays a huge role. It is only when the shortfall occurs, explanations are demanded and then also words like ethics are given a short shrift. In nutshell, only the end and not the means is what matters. In such an environment, where targets are means to not only success but more importantly survival, ethics boil down to a personal call. These calls have to be taken everyday by millions of people in real time with targets and survival at top of the mind.

The line between right and wrong gets blurred. Can one put a number on the price, less than which a gift is considered a culture token and above which it is considered a bribe? Doubt whether any corporate dossier conceptualized at the very top on ethics can address this issue on the ground.

Approaches to Corporate Governance

Over the years, two very distinct approaches to corporate governance have emerged. One is the mix of organization-control perspective and stakeholder-control perspective and other is based on capital market control.

The former approach sacrifices short-term focus at the altar of long-term sustainability. It is based on 1 person 1 vote dictum. The agreed upon goal for the management is to achieve stability and perpetuity of business. Board has representation of employees and society. Major chunk of equity comes from financial and non financial companies, which are ready to wait for longer periods for their investments to fructify. Firms are not too keen on going public thereby not lending themselves to the whims and fancies of markets. Employee welfare, obligation to local community, size and market share make up the essence of this approach. Myopic Market model by Marris is the fundamental pillar of this approach. According to this model, heeding the markets too much has a detrimental effect on the organization.

Excesses in this approach are created by managerial capitalism as executives are given a free hand in managing the show. At times, a host of objectives other than wealth creation are followed.

As the firm expands, it requires additional capital. If this capital is not forthcoming from stable sources like banks then the company has no other choice but to go public. This gives rise to capital market-control system. It is based on 1 share 1 vote dictum. The more the equity held by an investor, the more the firm is at her mercy. Investors are interested in the ends- dividends and capital gains. Hence, companies have to jostle for the mind space of these players. This brings in the short-termism of this approach. This perspective is based on Principal Agent model. Line is crossed in this approach when investor capitalism sets in. All other obligations of the firm are relegated to keeping the share price up and there is intense pressure on executives to perform consistently in the short-run leading at times to violation of norms.

Both the approaches are similar to the extent that they both give minority shareholders a short shrift. They have been taken for granted and most of their rights have remained on paper.

Lost Ground

Recently the stakeholder inclusive approach has lost considerable ground to shareholder savvy approach. The reason is capital becoming mobile. The global investors like private equity funds and pension funds are deluged with choices. But they lack one crucial element which the local investors have which is the closeness to the business which in turn lends stability to the equity provided. This means the firms have to attract these global investors by way of the globally acceptable parameters, toplines and bottomlines or their manifestation- the share price.

Catching up in the offing

What goes round comes back. Human capital is already the most valuable resource of organizations especially the ones operating in the technology sectors. With the focus shifting from attracting capital to retaining talent, the stakeholder inclusive approach with a sharp focus on employees might make up the ground lost in the last two decades or so to the capital-market control approach.

India Inc.’s Governance Evolution

Corporate entities in India stand out in terms of complexities in the ownership structure. The direct ownership of promoters is quite substantial and if that is not enough, the promoters indirectly have tremendous equity in and control of the firm through the rogue holding companies. It was believed that with the capital market reforms initiated in 1991, the dominance of promoters in the firms will pare. But unfortunately the last decade of the 20th century was marred by scams. The corporate entities went in for private placements making use of the relaxed regulations. These developments made the public spooky. In the last few years SEBI has put its foot down to crack down on the perpetrators and raised the disclosure standards leading to a renewed interest in the markets. The corporates are going global, a sign of their enhanced credibility.

Giants like TCS and Infosys have set global benchmarks in reporting standards and have implemented CSR in the fabric of their organizations.

With capital markets becoming dominant as the time passes and as organizations increasingly care to heed the market and keep the investors happy, it is safe to assume that the Indian corporate entities are veering away from organization-control to market-control approach toward corporate governance.

Right Directors mean Right Business

Board of directors is the highest internal governance mechanism in the organization. The board is the interface between external environment and management. The composition of the board reflects this. It has to straddle between providing necessary freedom to the management for wealth creation and protecting the interests of those who help create and of those who share this wealth. Just like an organization has a culture, it is critical for the board given the role it plays to have its own way of getting a handle on issues. No regulation can substitute for this. The non-executive members should meet separately to thrash out issues among themselves to promote ‘constructive dissatisfaction’. As far as the skills of the board members are concerned, they do not need to have finance or risk expertise to play an effective governance role. The task for the board is rather to understand and approve both the risk appetite of the company at any particular stage in its evolution and the processes for monitoring risk.

If the management proposes changing these radically-for example, by switching the portfolio of assets from low to high risk, or by engaging in off-balance-sheet financial transactions that inherently alter the volatility of the business and its exposure to uncertainties-the board should be quite willing to exercise a veto. Also, the management should be sensitive to the tricky context the board operates in and must grasp that directors’ independence can be compromised by ‘soft conflicts’ such as significant charitable contributions to a favorite institution or the employment of board members’ children.

Enron coterie Debacle – The positive fallout

There is a silver lining even in the darkest cloud that burst over the corporate world post-millennium. In the run up to the uncovering of some of the biggest frauds almost all in America, ironically a country which has always consecrated regulations, the markets were increasingly being viewed as infallible. Whatever information emanated from the organizations to the markets was taken as the last word. There was a reason behind this. The rules were set by the market and organizations were just playing by them leading to smugness all around. The disasters were eye openers for the gullible investors. Markets were vulnerable after all. Stricter rules followed. The corporate boards world over became more agile. The managements retreated. To a certain extent a long-term inclusive focus was restored in the firms having benign effects for every stakeholder.

The Undesirable side effect

Innovation is the mantra for success. But for corporates it has become a survival factor. The frauds have happened at the worst time. The organizations need to be more creative. Risk appetite should be high to capture the unexplored high potential markets. This calls for ingenuity on the executives’ part. But the atmosphere has become very restrictive. Regulations like SOX go overboard.

Boards would much rather have a conservative rather than an adventurous management. This does not bode well for the society as a whole as cagey entrepreneurs will not be able to fulfill their outstanding objective-wealth creation.

Business Initiatives with social spin-offs and not vice versa

Prima facie, ITC’s e-choupal venture seems an effort in the direction of social responsibility. But intrinsically the effort makes eminent economic sense.

It is not a subsidy but an effort which is mutually beneficial. Corporate social responsibility enthusiasts might label such efforts as social initiatives. But the bottom-line is that such efforts generate returns, which guarantees shareholder support. Till such time the business gains precede societal benefits and the society appreciates this reality, the long-run sustenance of these initiatives is guaranteed. Responsible corporates and not corporate social responsibility is the order of the day.

Crucial Culture

Culture is the way people behave when they are not being watched. It is very organization specific and very unlike regulation which is procrustean. The magnitude of damage that can be caused by an individual to the stakeholders of the firm increases as he/she moves up the corporate ladder. The power to influence attitudes also increases on the way up. Hence self evidently the top brass of the firm has a big hand in shaping the culture of the firm. If the honcho crosses the line, it sends out an implicit signal to the people lower down to knowingly or unknowingly to act in a similar manner as the stakes are not that high as they are for the men at the top. The trickling down of an open culture might take time but one can be rest assured that the only way in which it is going to impact the firm is positively. But where organizations go wrong is where they expect the same things from culture as the regulators do from regulation. It is never going to be a one size fits all story. This is where the earlier talked about concept of ethics being very individual specific and not organization one comes into picture. Do not impose culture. Let people understand and appreciate it and find their own way of incorporating it into their work life.

The information imperative

A fair judgment is based on fair information. Often, the best appraisal is done by those who are at a certain distance from the subject matter and at the same time affected by it. Organizations err when they try to preemptively guess others’ reactions. This leads to distortion of information. Doing business is the primary task of business; it is not in the best position to evaluate it from different angles. Hence, organizations should pass on information about its policies, practices and risk appetite. Let the other stakeholders primarily the markets assign an appropriate risk premium and cost of capital. Part of this information dissemination has been achieved by regulation manifested in balance sheet et al. The other part has become more crucial as the businesses have grown complex and can only be achieved with the will of the management and the board. A culture of transparency goes a long way in achieving the latter. Of course transparency has its limits.

But voluntary initiatives like Triple Bottom Line reporting which not only cover the financial but also the social and environmental impacts of the company signal a start. All kinds of companies from the ones with most to hide like chemical to the fairly innocuous ones with the least to hide have adopted this practice. Why? It does make social and environmental sense, but more importantly, thanks to competition in and integration of the world economy, it makes eminent business sense.

Conclusion

Wealth has to be created before it can be distributed. The responsibility to create wealth is of business. And responsibilities and rights must go together. Hence, the society cannot disarm business of its rights which are essential for creating value. The spookiness comes in when business accords certain rights to itself by itself. The importance of wealth creation and difficulty in achieving it blurs the fine line.

As we have seen there is no silver bullet for settling issues like business ethics and corporate governance. Separations of powers just like between executive, judiciary and legislature is imperative. No one stakeholder is an apex authority. Everyone has a role to play.

Regulation defines these roles to a certain extent. But it can only do so much. A culture epitomized by the top management and communication of the right information do much more than regulation. At the end of the day we are all human. We think differently and have different takes on different issues. Till such time this fact is appreciated and co-opted by every stakeholder and a healthy debate continues on the rightness of business, we are certain that businesses will keep on doing what they are good at and others will keep making sure that businesses do it the good way.

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Ethics

Platonic-Fullerene Chemistry and the Ethics of Admiral Robert Fitzroy's Storm Glass

Last century, before sealed roads linked North West Australia to areas of population, dusty dirt roads were used by mining exploration companies, which passed through huge station properties where underground water sustained a thriving cattle industry. One of the popular tales told in those days was about how flocks of white cockatoos, sensing that rain was coming to their area, became very excited, flying about in a frenzy of screeching excitement. In some arid areas it may have been well over a year since rain had fallen, but those birds always seemed to know days beforehand, that a rare storm was approaching. Some biological mechanism had been triggered that 20th Century science was unable to explain.

Admiral Robert Fitzroy, during Charles Darwin's Voyage on HMS Beagle, had concocted a mixture of chemicals, which he had sealed inside glass jars called storm glasses. In 1859 The British Crown issued them to many fishing villages throughout Britain. Captains of ships at port were to read them before going to sea. The formation of crystals, cloudy fluids, thread like formations, spotting or star clots, indicated future weather conditions. Because the jars were sealed the science of their day could not explain how they functioned.

The Molecule of Emotion, discovered by Dr Candace Pert in 1972, is now considered an expression of fractal logic and provides explanations as to why the flocks of cockatoos reacted to the approaching arrival of flooding rains. Within the present scientific world-view, the association of infinite fractal purpose, although an accepted logic, cannot be associated with any biological process. Einstein's Premier Law of all of Science, the universal heat death law, forbids it. All evolutionary processes are understood to lead to the total heat death extinction of life and cannot be part of any infinite fractal process.

The properties of Carbon 70, which functions beyond the entropic limitation of Einstein's world-view, have been discovered and are inspiring new concepts of ethical quantum biological energy technology under the guidance of the new Platonic-Fullerene Chemistry. Fullerene Chemistry has been established by the three 1996 Nobel Laureates in chemistry and is basic to their new medical institute called C 60 Inc., suggesting that Carbon 70 is also relevant to a medical science, as is suggested herein. The term 'ethical' arises from the Platonic Science for Ethical Ends, from which Buckminster Fuller derived his synergistic theories, which balanced Einstein's entropic world-view, as did also Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished papers discovered last century.

In Australia the governmental understanding of the way carbon functions is so confused that Australian voters can be seen to be about to bring down the present government over issues that appear to many to belong to an international debt enforcement global rationalism. The use of Kantian Aesthetics to maintain a Moral Jurisprudence Law to somehow depict perpetual economic growth and development is illogical. Only fractal logic can possibly be used to develop such a line of reasoning and that logic belongs to Kantian fractal logic electromagnetic Ethics, banished from science due to its paganorigins within the Platonic Science for Ethical Ends. If Platonic-Fullerene Chemistry were to clearly demonstrate the principles upon which Admiral Fitzroy's storm glass was enabled to forecast the weather, the entropic logic of global economic rationalism could not possibly grasp them.

Homo Entropicus, by scientific definition, can only bring about an acceleration of the chaos associated with the extinction process. It is a shocking thought that the ones attacking the logic of the existing entropic death sentence mentality, might be the confused unethical thugs who seem to find some need to run amok in our urban environment. The point that might need to be examined is, is it possible that we need to gain an understanding of what Plato's engineering ethics of a spiritual reality are all about, now that Platonic-Fullerene Chemistry is presenting them as the basis of a new holographic environmental science?

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Ethics

Pool And Billiards Ethics

Playing a pool match with your buddies sounds like a fun plan during the weekend. After all, it is a guys’ night out. But due to this reason too, you have to take cautions to avoid an argument over the table at the pool hall.

Here are some rules and common agreements when playing pool.

Agreeing to the rules

Everyone should make it clear about the game rules. This can be 9-ball, 10-ball or an 8-ball game. Maybe you declare a special rule making the game different. At the same time, you should also make sure your opponent knows this too.

Ask

At any point of the game, if you are not sure about an issue, simply ask the referee, your opponent or surrounding people who are watching. This simply point can prevent an argument caused by simple misunderstandings.

No beverage

If you are thirsty, make it a habit to retreat to a nearby table instead. Don’t make it a habit to put any types of drinks on the pool table. You should know that the pool cloth is not cheap too.

Don’t distract your opponent

This is rather not a gentleman style. Focus and attention are 2 very important components in the game. They are required to win. When you distract your opponent, it is rather unethical in doing so.

Respect the cue and balls

Don’t abuse them in any other ways. The cue is for delivering strokes to the cue ball and you should hit the right balls. Again, respect for the other player is key here.

Be sociable

This is especially true when playing against strangers at the pool hall. Be polite and talk in a friendly manner and you will certainly enjoy a good game of billiards on a weekend.

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Ethics

The Prism of Ethics in the Workplace and Its Contributions to Workplace Violence

The adopted culture within today’s workplace contributes to the frequency of Workplace Violence incidences that occur. ‘Applied Ethics’ in the workplace contributes to the development of this culture. Statistics have outlined that insider threats cause the majority of Workplace Violence incidents. These insiders are familiar with operational practices and are familiar with security deficiencies. The risks associated with these deficiencies (physical or procedural) and the will of an employee to take action to solve a dispute creates unsafe working environments.

When insiders are familiar with the ‘lay of the land’ it makes it hard for security personnel to identify potential threats and identify risk exposure. In order for security personnel to identify potential threats and exposure they must identify the root problem(s) associated with Workplace Violence. The root problem that is often overlooked is ‘Applied Ethics’ and its influence on the organizational culture. Marion-Webster dictionary defines ethics as “the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with the moral duty and obligation.” If a group of governing security bodies were evaluated and ask a question about ‘Applied Ethics’ the majority of these organizations would outline that their organizational practices are in fact ‘ethical’ and that the majority of workplace violence issues are caused by bad hires. These organizations may never identify that there could be an even bigger issue associated with violence in the workplace that is linked to ‘Organizational Agents’ and the management practices that these agents implement to meet organizational goals.

The U.S. Department of Labor defines Workplace Violence as “any act or threat of physical violence, harassment, intimidation or other threatening disruptive behavior that occurs at the work site.” Statistical evaluations have also outlined that Workplace Violence is a major contributor to homicides within the workplace and that at least 2 million workers file reports of being abused in the workplace every year. These statistics are gathered from reported incidents but when you identify the economical factors associated with the need to ‘remain employed’ the statistics of abuse may be even higher if employees choose not to report abuse. The following questions can be asked: How much of bad ethical practices do employees tolerate and do not report incidences? How are bad ethical practices putting your organizations at risk?

On the national and state levels there seems to be very little laws that fall outside of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) of 1970 that provide protection to employees from Workplace Violence. Organizations are given the option to develop sound policies and procedures in an effort to aid the prevention process of Workplace Violence. These policies and procedures rely primarily on effective communication; which in some large organizations can be blurred as information is distributed. Large organizations have a hard time policing these policies and procedures due to decentralization; and often rely on its agents who may be major contributors to Workplace Violence incidents. This often creates the perpetrator to victim conversion which puts the original perpetrator and other innocent victims at risk.

Effective policies and procedures created to deal with the threats of Workplace Violence are the key to recognition and prevention. Different levels of an organization aid the publication and promotion process. These same levels of the organization can implement practices that will influence ‘Applied Ethics’ and that can make positive contributions to the organizations culture.

Human Resources

1. Ensure that detailed policies and procedures are in place and enforce publication.

2. Measure organizational culture by conducting climate surveys and evaluating turnover rates.

3. Promote open door policy and protect employees who report different forms of Workplace Violence.

4. Evaluate the managerial practices of all personnel who have been designated as ‘Organizational Agents’.

5. Promote non-bias investigations.

6. Discourage the cronyism method of management.

Line Management

1. Evaluate and promote organizational policies.

2. Provide consistent training on workplace violence to managers.

3. Promote team building.

4. Meritoriously promote personnel vice promoting through attrition.

5. When Workplace Violence incidences occur ensure that details of the incident are referred to proper management levels and Human Resources for mitigation.

Victims

1. Strive to be an above average employee.

2. Identify current organizational policies.

3. Notify potential perpetrators through the use of Human Resource mediation; placing perpetrators on notice.

4. Document incidences.

5. Seek legal action.

Security Personnel

1. Ensure that there is a policy in place.

2. Conduct non-bias investigations.

3. Gather information from Human Resources and Line Managers on incidents; make recommendations.

4. Foster a relationship with employees.

5. Inform top-level management of risk and threat levels.

6. Protect information that outlines physical vulnerabilities.

Top Level Management

In an effort to prevent insider threats and the contribution that these threats make towards Workplace Violence, organizations need to be founded on an Ethical Prism. This prism consists of an organization’s four walls, ceiling (tolerance level) and floor (accountability). The key elements that are needed to foster positive ethical prisms and reduce risk associated with Workplace Violence are:

Accountability – Hold Violators Accountable no matter what position they hold

Tolerance – “0” Tolerance

Transparency – Deploy a checks and balance system

Training – Provide recurring training applications

Non-Bias Practices – Treat Everyone Equal

Team Building – Ensure that the organization promotes team building

Ethical practices foster the organizational culture that exists within the workforce. Sometimes these cultures stray away from the true meaning of ‘Applied Ethics’ and can cause an increase in Workplace Violence incidents. Organizational awareness can be raised by having sound policies and procedures in place and by promoting these policies and procedures. Insiders pose the largest threats to organizations because they are familiar with the Physical Protection System in place. In an effort to reduce the risk associated with Workplace Violence security personnel must implement security policies that are supported by ethical practices and must operate within a culture that is ethical. Ethical practices reduce the risks associated with deficiencies within Physical Protection System.

Some organizations may not have the staff or expertise required to aid Workplace Violence prevention efforts. Fortunately, there are multiple information sources that are available. Organizations such as the International Association of Professional Security Consultants (IAPSC) and multiple Human Resource consulting firms can help organizations develop policies that are beneficial to prevention. These organizations may also help reduce the risk associated with premise liability lawsuits that are normally the result of Workplace Violence incidents.

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Ethics

Pakistani Media Organizations Are Unable to Formulate a Self-Disciplined Code of Ethics

From black and white to a pile of colors, from audio to video, from mini to nano, from wired to wireless and from newspapers to news channels and social media, a huge shift in the means of deliverance is visible. Communication through technology was one of the most popular discoveries of the artificial intelligence in the 20th century which is now more enhanced and modified using the structural development, technological advancement, and industrial progress restoration in the 21st century.

Pakistan, a developing country, is a democratic nation where freedom of speech is considered to be a human right according to Article No. 19 in the constitution. Freedom of speech does not refer to backlash a view or an opinion, instead, it refers to the presentation of one’s point of explanation and thoughts. Along with this right of speaking, media, especially new organizations that include the hub of social media, new channels, e-papers, web links, etc, is serving as the main source of the deliverance of awareness, speeches, opinions, and explanations. The film industry, Lollywood, and drama telecasters are also an important part of media organizations.

There are more than twenty-five news channels on air in Pakistan at the present. Moreover, there are about thirty newspapers that are delivered in several areas of Pakistan. When it comes to newspapers, many of them have sub-editions with respect to the language or the dialect is spoken in a specific region and the current affairs of that area. Social media accounts also deal with the provision of news alerts, breaking news, knowledge of current affairs, and etc. Several channels on television also screen drama serial. The Lollywood industry has made a huge and remarkable effort to reach the new steps of success and equivalency to the Bollywood and Hollywood in aspects of design, concept, audio, video, dance, songs, dramatization, script, and scenes. However, not every time a news is broadcasted or a film/drama is screened, a positive response in return is expected.

Since 2002, media has got the rights of free speech in Pakistan. Media, especially the news organizations have faced yellow journalism on their way to display and creating awareness. As mentioned earlier that a number of news channels are being broadcasted but not more than five of them are well-known and eminent. Among several newspapers, only a few are renowned and distributed at their respective places But the issue comes when a visible race is prominent among these organizations to achieve maximum television rating point (TRP) and to become a leading news channel or a newspaper. Either it is a news source or entertainment source in terms of drama channels, films, and songs, a high standard being achieved is clearly visible, however, the more standardized it is getting, the more unethical and biased vision is also seen.

Considering Pakistan i.e. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan, from the name it can be determined that Pakistan is a country based on Islamic ideology. Democracy along with an Islamic perspective has to be implemented within the country. Rules, regulations, the system of authorities, and constitution must be in accordance with the Islamic values. Quaid’s demand for Pakistan was aimed to create a separate nation where Muslims can easily live their lives with respect to Islam and the principles. Moreover, this visibility of our identity is now missing.

Ethics in Journalism

Journalism is one of the most honored professions in the whole world. Journalism is naturally interlinked with honesty, loyalty, responsibility, and ethics. Being a journalist, it is one’s keen responsibility to provide true and accurate information to its audience no matter what means of communication is utilized. But today in Pakistan, journalism has lost its faith, accuracy, seriousness, and honor. Yellow journalism has contributed the maximum to the decline of ethics of journalism. Liberalization is creating continuous downfalls for the news organizations. There is no proper code of conduct formulated to maximize the power of news and the news channels in the society. There are immature acts in these organization that are not beneficial for the reputation and authenticity of a journalist. There’s a race going on as earlier mentioned in broadcasting and screening the news at first. While arguing and being busy in this race, the media actually forget to analyze and learn about the origin and the source of the news. Today, a news of minimum importance is as well spread throughout the country due to this act of giving no importance to the accuracy and proper means of communication. Hence, this head to head competition is contributing to the decline of ethics in journalism.

A proper framework should be designed in order to develop a supporting policy to journalism. There should be a representation of facts instead of opinions and biased statements and reports. A journalist has to be neutral in terms of giving opinions. He has to mention all the pros and cons of a respective news subject and has to deliver evidence with context to the subject’s favor and opposition in the hierarchy. Journalism should not be on behalf of any representative community, society, private organization, or a political party. It should mainly focus on the facts and figures clearly associated to the subject. A journalist must hold accountable for his/her statement or report. It should not violate the rules of PEMRA and should not harm people.

Ethics in the Film Industry

Islam, the religion of respect, love, warmth, and equality, supports progress and prosperity through its principles and ethics. Pakistan is an Islamic state but has adopted the idea of west instead of trying to remain the rest and the best. Our religion teaches about gender equality but it does not give more dominance to the women in our society. In the present time, the film industry of Pakistan has met technological advancements. Technological advancements are the new measure of success in a country. However, these technological advancements very cleanly violate the policies and rules of Islam. Women are considered to be equal, but this does not mean that they should be exhibited on televisions with half cloths, bold make-up, dancing on vulgar songs, as their own choice. Islam has remarked women as a diamond and as Pakistan is an Islamic ideological state, there should be policies collaborated with the religion in spite of altering it and let the west taking over it. Taboos should refrain from being forcedly incorporated into Pakistan’s culture and values.

Everyone, either it is an independent candidate or a political party representative, is fighting to get the powers of the country but no one is giving even a mild sort of interest in improving the sense of modernization in our country with respect to the basic ideology i.e. Islam along with the Holy Quran and Sunnah. It should be given proper attention as it is an important unethical behavior carried out by the majority of people with elite backgrounds.

Ethics and Social Media

Well, social media, not only in Pakistan, is turning out to be the latest significant court and forum of discussions. Lots of debates, arguments, exchange of claims, and opinions are now seen as an active part of human activity. Social media sites like “Facebook” and especially “Twitter” have now turned into a business promotion tool. Everyone has their own personal account of space and dashboard, however, this does not allow the ethics of a particular person to violate the terms of security and produce a sense of harm to its fellow citizens. Everyone has a right to their opinion and they must stick to it but should refrain from backlashing and using verbal violence against a subject. Social media is the fastest tool for communication and has left news channels and newspapers behind. Hence, it is the leading tool. However, the tool should be used in a positive manner i.e. to create awareness among the people about a certain issue, to communicate with those who are in need, to keep yourself updated about the current affairs, and to exchange opinions.

There are many people on these social sites that do not respect the integrity and esteem of the other person. They post stuff that might offend the audience and be a source of harassment, however, it is their right to express their though but there should be a proper policy and formula to maintain the use of social media tools for a limited purpose. A person posts a status and that can reach to millions of people who are even unknown to the source. There is a long way for the social media to go and it should be immediately taken into consideration for the empowerment of the means of communication and media organizations.

It is widely seen that in the past few years, the media organizations of Pakistan have lost their values, esteem, and have exploded as a genocide in a negative manner. Lack of professionalism has led to this downfall of the industry. There is a dire need of formulating a proper code of conduct that should support the Islamic ethics of the country and should be followed. Any organization that does not follow the agreeable terms and conditions should be given an immediate treatment in accordance with the formulated code of conduct for the country’s welfare and prosperity. There should be proper awareness and training sessions for the people associated with media in order to create an impressive personality so that professionalism may be institutionalized with a proficient technique and only such proficient individuals, leading the media organizations, should be given an official status in the Pakistani society.

Categories
Ethics

Inspiration Ethics – The Value of Courage

CourageNoun ; conscious self-sacrifice in pursuit of something greater than one's own self-interest.

People are basically goal-oriented, seeking to satisfy wants and needs. But when pain or fear or any trigger of avoidance intrude, it is difficult to follow desire with action – even if the goal is very important, the action critical and the rewards great. At these times, we need Courage. Courage is a learned thing, not borne into us but developed over time.

" Whether you be man or woman you will never do anything in this world without courage. It is the greatest quality of the mind next to honor. " – James Allen

We too often think of courage in modern life requiring unique heroism or call to duty on a grand scale, such as in situations of rescue and war. Of course, in war humans sometimes fight because they are embarrassed not to. For courage to be authentic, one must encounter fear and prove superior to the fear through right action.

Fear of what? Most directly, physical courage exists in the face of bodily harm or death. In other words, physical courage is demonstrated by acting regardless of fear for one's life or livelihood. We need a different kind of courage than physical courage on a daily basis. Leadership character requires moral courage : to become a better leader; to stand up for what is right when we stand alone; to do what is right despite disapproval or negative peer pressure; or to take risks in our quest to achieve what is important. These take Courage – without it we go nowhere, accomplish little, lack meaning and regret much. Courage is the primer for any other virtue.

"Courage is not simply one of the virtues, but the form of every virtue at the testing point." – CS Lewis

Courage to act in our own story

The opportunity to develop Courage occurs in the mundane story of our daily living where even tiny seeds of fear exist, where the danger is loss of integrity. In business and in our everyday life, Courage is rarely impulsive but results from self-conditioning – a history of calculated bold moves based on firm convictions. The best leaders develop courage consciously, deliberately, over time, and it shows in their actions. A leader's story is a story of courage.

"People who become good leaders have a greater than average willingness to make bold moves, but they strengthen their chances of success – and avoid career suicide – through careful deliberation and preparation. Business courage is not so much a visionary leader's inborn characteristic as a skill acquired through decision-making processes that improve with practice. " – Kathleen K. Reardon, Courage as a Skill, Harvard Business Review, January 2007.

Virtue at a cost

Courage is not the only virtue. Courage begins things: it is a precursor for Faith, Love, Change, Persistence, Authenticity, Trust, Service and every other value. CS Lewis once said that the virtue of courage is a prerequisite for the practice of all other virtues. In other words, one is virtuous only when virtue has a cost, a price we are fearful to pay.

Without courage we do not get started on what is important; we do not take right action; we live in fear of the consequences of virtue. Every day we face decisions that begin, interrupt or sustain our courage-life pattern. Courage is your cupid's arrow for everything you really want to have, to do, to create, or to become, no matter how mundane or how wonderful the rewards.

Courage can only exist through virtuous action. Another kind of courage is shown in a bad cause because it does not intend a moral effect and demonstrates vice over virtue. [Think of the 9/11 hijackers or any act of terrorism] More than any other human trait, courage seems to be quite capable to serve wrongdoing.

US Senator John McCain said that "without courage we are corruptible." Without courage we may be admirers but not champions of virtue and character. There are times when we recognize something needs to be done, and yet we know that if we step up to right action, we will pay a heavy personal price. Courage is the virtue that makes us willing to pay that price; cowardice makes us say, "The price is too high; I will not pay it. It is too hard. I will seek the easier, less costly choice."

Remorse makes a dreadful companion. Anyone can learn to live with pain. Anyone can learn to live with fear, embarrassment, ridicule and separation. We can learn from failure. Yet nothing will divert your gaze into a mirror more quickly than shame. Remorse for inaction and regret for wrong action is more difficult to overcome; the cure for both is Courage. Courage leads to right action. Right action requires courage. It takes courage to admit a mistake, still more to make amends. No matter what the consequence of noble Courage, it is never worse than the discovery that you are less than you pretend to be.

"Life is either a daring adventure, or nothing." – Helen Keller

Reflections to inspire personal growth in Courage (with your learning partner)

How would your life be different if you had more courage? What can you do daily to increase your courage? What is your personal code of ethics; what must you change to demonstrate them more fully? Find an accountability partner or hire a coach to help to help you develop your courage and take these actions:

  • What are some examples of Courage that I could demonstrate in my daily life at home and at work?
  • Courage is the form of every other virtue at the testing point. Courage requires a test of conviction. How would my life be different if, beginning today, I took the test daily?
  • What does the phrase mean, "Without courage we are corruptible?"
  • Think of a specific issue you face or a goal you want to achieve. What would be your cause and cost? What are the real or perceived risks? What might be keeping you from taking action?
  • Can you think of a time when you risked your own self-interest for something greater? What was it? How did you feel then? How has it shaped you?
  • The next opportunity I have to risk self-interest for something greater, will I recognize it? Will I be ready? How I you know?
  • Who do I "pretend" to be? What specific right actions will put me on the narrow path of integrity?
  • Is my remorse for non-action greater than my fear of consequence for action?
Categories
Ethics

The Ethics of the 21st Century Renaissance

The present goal of governments wanting to stay in power is to secure greater business opportunities and an expanding economy. This particular obsession with power disregards the future accumulation of unsustainable debt, resulting in inevitable demoralising chaos, and in continual conflict.

This science of chaos, is governed by the second law of thermodynamics, which Albert Einstein referred to as the ‘Premier Law of all of Science’. His colleague, Sir Arthur Eddington, called it the ‘Supreme Metaphysical Law of the Entire Universe’. In his most famous essay entitled ‘A Freeman’s Worship’, Lord Bertrand Russell wrote that we had no other choice but to worship the law in a total anguish of despair, devoid of any sustainable natural ethic arguing otherwise. Very recent scientific discoveries have confirmed that this philosophery of science was dangerously wrong.

These discoveries also validated the original basis of science, which was constructed in ancient Greece. The Platonic tradition of Geek philosophy had been used for centuries to fuse ethics into a model of creation called the Nous, postulated during the 5th Century BC by the father of cosmological science, Anaxagoras. He thought that a supreme creator of our world left our section of the universe in order to construct others elsewhere, leaving us with freewill to develop an ethical purpose for the evolution of life.

By the 3rd Century BC, the resulting Atomistic science derived from fusing ethics into the Nous, was taught at the Greek universities, The Lyceum and The Academy. The science became known as the ‘Science for Ethical Ends’, which was also compatible with the 3rd Century BC Atomistic ‘Science of universal love’, taught at the University, Ho Kepos.

When the Great Library of Alexandria was burned in 415 AD, most of the mathematical scrolls about these sciences were destroyed as the works of the Devil, plunging Western civilisation into the Dark Ages. As the new discoveries now demonstrate, we were literately left with a culture devoid of sustainable scientific ethics.

The Cornell University Library posted about one of these discoveries, made by two Chinese scientists in 2011. The scientists used mathematics to demonstrate that proteins in DNA continuously enfolded into shapes, in order to evolve in contradiction to the Einsteinian World-view. Ten years earlier, the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia, had predicted this protein phenomena to exist, an idea that had been derived from the Platonic Science for Ethical Ends.

The science of quantum mechanics has been accepted as being the basis of modern science since 1927. This science encompassed an erroneous concept of continual chaos, thought to lead eventually to the destruction of all life in the universe. In order to correct the destructive ramifications of this ‘Greed Energy Law’ governing current economics, politics, technology and quantum science, we must upgrade and modify quantum mechanics accordingly to the new discoveries.

Discoveries made by utilising nanotechnology, provide photographic evidence demonstrating that the evolutionary functioning of the molecule of emotion, discovered by Dr Candace Pert in 1972, does not obey the greed energy law at all. This demonstrates that global economic slavery is an unnatural and unethical greed driven obsession. The geometrical pattern of the dance of life is known to be based upon variations of the sacred geometries, used to produce a intuitive emotional pattern recognition transferred to and encoded in the emotion molecule. We can explain the cancerous nature of this obsession by showing that its mathematical logic is unable to generate healthy biological growth and development through space-time. This cancer-like growth is contrary to the mathematical functioning of the lost ethical science, which can generate healthy biological blueprints through space-time.

In 1990 the Science-Art Research Centre’s mathematics of life-energy was selected for reprinting as an important optical discovery of the 20th Century literature by the IEEE SPIE Milestone Series, the world’s largest technological research institute. This phenomenon had been alluded to by Einstein, as belonging to the mythological reality of Babylonian mathematical metaphysical conjecture. The first mythological mathematical structure of the Greek Nous was non regenerative, because its mythical creator was thought to have left our universe upon having completed its creation.

The prolonged application of consciously weaving ethics into the Nous’ mythical existence, transformed its original Euclidean mathematical structure into a dynamical geometrical living mathematical system. However, Einstein forbade the development of this Nous mathematics to be part of any living system. Although his mainstream world-view now accepts that the dynamical fractal mathematical logic extends to infinity, it refuses to link it to any life-science, because Einstein thought that the energies of chaos radiating away from dying star systems. would eventually bring about the cessation of all life. Therefore, according to Einstein, the living process could not possibly extend to infinity.

This reasoning is incorrect. The recent Cloud Chamber experiments at the CERN Hadron Collider demonstrated that cosmic radiation from dying novae, 30 million light years ago in the Milky-way, causes rain to fall on earth today. Furthermore, the process can be linked to the evolving formation of endocrine fluids within the molecule of emotion. The process of consciousness affecting the subatomic fabric of the material universe, the basis of quantum mechanics, was thought by Einstein to only obey the lifeless laws of the physical reality. The 1937 Nobel Laureate in Medicine, Szent-Gyorgyi, argued strongly to the contrary. He insisted that consciousness belonged to a second energy system by interacting with Einstein’s understanding of the energies of chaos. In ancient times, that second energy system was associated with a spiritual intuitive reality. Today it is known to belong to the functioning of the infinite holographic universe.

The Science-Art Research Centre’s Director of Bio-aesthetics, art appreciation theory, the late Dr George Cockburn, Royal fellow of Medicine, London, wrote a book titled A Bio-Aesthetic Key to Creative Physics and Art, analysing 200 years of painting methodology employed by Australian Art-masters. He concluded that some artists were compelled to paint by an innate inner sense of belonging to a holographic universe. Cockburn advanced the electromagnetic aesthetic theories of the philosopher Emmanuel Kant and modified them to derive a mathematical understanding about Kant’s Godlike electromagnetic ethic for perpetual peace on earth. Cockburn’s conclusions were similar to the work of the mathematician Bernard Bolzano, who had also developed mathematical theories about ethics through a correction to Kant’s work. In the past, some scholars had used Kant’s aesthetic theories to develop a mathematics for perpetual economic growth and development, which, as already explained, ins now considered to be socially carcinogenic. The difference between aesthetics and ethics is explainable through an entanglement between the quantum mechanical reality and the holographic reality of the now emerging quantum biology.

Following Dr Cockburn’s death, the Science-Art Centre used his mathematical electromagnetic definition of the creative Nous, to locate their optical properties within the modern manufacture of various 3-D viewing glasses. The relevant glasses, when used to view paintings, transformed some of them into holographic images. By using these glasses to view computer images of complex dynamical systems, within the scientific book entitled, The Beauty of Fractals, it was discovered that these pictures became vivid holographic images. Within this book, a chapter called Freedom, Science and Aesthetics, was written by the eminent scientist Professor Gert Eilenberger. He stated: ‘That is part of the excitement surrounding these pictures; they demonstrate that out of research an inner connection, a bridge, can be made between rational scientific insight and emotional aesthetic appeal; these two modes of cognition of the human species are beginning to concur in their estimation of what constitutes nature.’

This optical bridge is the one that the molecular biologist, Sir C P Snow spoke of in his famous Rede lecture at Cambridge University in 1959. Unless that bridge between modern science and the ancient Greek Humanities’ ethical knowledge was constructed, the Einsteinian understanding of the law of chaos must collapse global civilisation. It is also the basis of Buckminster Fuller’s warning, that unless we developed the energies of two universal energy systems, instead of Einstein’s single system of chaos, then oblivion would result. The lost pagan mathematics can now be linked to the quantum entanglement between quantum mechanics and quantum biology, to show that modern science, technology, politics and economics have no long term sustainable ethical content.

It is nonsense to continue to prevent this issue from being researched because it had been erroneously classified during the 5th Century as the work of the Devil. This was because the mathematical understanding, once taught in the Mystery Schools of Babylon, belonged to the worship of the Goddess Ishtar. The attack upon the mathematical teachings by St Augustine followed, because the Bible had linked such mathematics to the worship of the Whore of Babylon. The use of sacred geometries had been used in the Babylonian ceremonial worship of Ishtar, the Goddess of prostitution and war. However, the sacred geometrical mathematics taught in the teaching of the ancient Egyptian Goddess Maat, was about mercy, compassion and justice and the prevention of the universe from reverting to chaos.

Buckminster Fuller derived his spiritual, optical engineering, mathematical world-view, from the Egyptian school of mythical mathematics. Whereas, Lord Bertrand Russell and Albert Einstein developed theirs from the mathematics developed from ancient Babylon. The reader can confirm that Fuller derived his synergistic universe from the Platonic spiritual mathematics developed from the Egyptian Mystery Schools, by reading Harvard University’s Novatis Professor Amy Edmonson’s, free 1987 on line edition of her book entitled The Fuller Explanation-The Synergetic Geometry of R Buckmister Fuller, Chapter 4, pages 36 and 37.

No matter how clever our obsolete mathematics becomes, the more damage it causes. For example some scientists are realising that the three Nobel Prizes awarded for mathematical economic logic in 1994, appear to have brought about the collapse of the former Soviet Union and the mathematics is now collapsing the global economy. This example of chaotic mind over the functioning of mathematical matters can be adversely compared with the ethical mathematics upholding the lost Science for Ethical Ends.

The above-mentioned Professor Eilenberger’s chapter about Freedom, Science and Aesthetics is derived from the ancient Greek ‘Science for Ethical Ends’. When Pythagoras introduced light into the Greek ‘Music of the spheres’ concept, he used the ethics of Egyptian political teaching. His Egyptian spiritual concept of liberty is now depicted on the Great Seal of America.

During the 18th and 19th Century, philosophers of science, such as Kant, Oersted, Schelling and Humboldt, realised that the Pythagorean ethical spiritual mathematics was alluding to their much later discoveries, related to their electromagnetic environmental reality. Schelling corrected Kant’s religious concept of the Godlike electromagnetic ethic for perpetual peace on earth, by linking it directly to the scientific principles upholding the pagan ‘Science for Ethical Ends’. These scientists were searching for a force to be harnessed, to make Faraday’s electric motor seem a child’s toy by comparison. Scientists from around the world have now constructed various aspects of the electromagnetic ethic that fits together to make such an electromagnetic model of reality feasible.

An electromagnetic motor drives the tail of the sperm to the ovum. Upon entering, it is transformed by the feminine electromagnetic field. into the cellular centriole. The centriole energises the first bone created in the embryo, the sphenoid (known in alchemy as the Golden Mean). The sphenoid bone vibrates with the seashell Golden Mean design of the cochlea, using the same life-energy forces as those discovered by the Science-Art Centre, during the 1980s. This then creates the electromagnetic functioning responsible for evolving consciousness, as has been derived from the Greek Music of the Spheres concept by the Texas University scientist, Dr Richard Merrick, as is explained in minute detail within his book entitled, Interference.

Nanotechnology is helping to outline the relevant ethical technology, which is unimaginable to scientists who are locked into the mindset of those obsessed with the physical functioning of the greed energy law. The term, ‘greed energy law’ was used by the anthropologist, Dr Maria Montessori, listed in TIME Magazine’s Century of Science, as the greatest scientist for 1907. Her work with the Jesuit Priest, Tieldhardt de Chardin, who also challenged the single energy system of Einstein’s world-view, was derived from the electromagnetic theories of Immanuel Kant. Montessori established a particular teaching system to explain how the creative thinking of young children developed outside the influence of parental and religious psychological input.

During the 21st Century, the Science-Art Research Centre began to focus upon creating a Social Cradle to assist the more rigorous research of the Florentine New Measurement of Humanity Project at Florence University. On the 24th of September 2010, the quantum chemists, Professors Paolo Manzelli and Massimo Pregnolato, were awarded the Giorgio Napolitano Medal on behalf of the Republic of Italy for their quantum biological research discoveries. This was internationally declared as the birth date of the 21st Century Renaissance.

Together, with their colleagues, they have extended the organisation, Art Quantum International, to further the Italian Science-Art research. In June 2012, the Science-Art Research Centre printed the book entitled, The 21st Century Renaissance, using the pioneering history of Science-Art Research in Australia to introduce the human survival ethical ethos of the Florentine Project. This book contains a chapter written by a Dr of International Law, outlining how UNESCO and the United Nations can upgrade Immanuel Kant’s failed vision of an ethical League of Nations, in order to implement his ennobling electromagnetic ethical ethos. A Doctor of Medicine has written to support the legal text, with the general ethical concept endorsed by a UNESCO Chair for World Peace and by the Electrical Engineer who headed the development of the Telefunken Communications Complex in Europe.

It is well known that scholars throughout the world are developing similar concepts about the new ethical science and technology. If they can somehow merge their intuitive endeavours for critical debate, within the structure of the 21st Century Renaissance, they may well combine to advance science for the betterment of the global human condition, under its ethical umbrella.

© Professor Robert Pope

Advisor to the President Oceania and Australasia of the Institute for Theoretical Physics and Advanced Mathematics (IFM) Einstein-Galilei

Categories
Ethics

The Assessment of Ethical Behavior During National Ethics Month

Does your business or organization place high values ​​on moral principles? How does your business or organization promote ethical behavior and strengthen your ethical culture? In celebration of National Ethics Awareness Month, individuals, businesses and organizations must take an assessment of the set of values ​​that without fail, guides our decisions and behavior.

National Ethics Awareness Month is celebrated annually during the month of March to promote ethics awareness and ethical behavior. The decisions we make become critical if an effective organizational culture discourages unethical behavior, while abiding by business ethics and social responsibility.

Unethical behavior could have long-term, short-term or permanent consequences that could damage all parties directly or indirectly involved. Key stakeholders, shareholders, clients, vendors and investors can experience damaging consequences if ethical standards are not upheld personally or in business cultures. It is imperative that individuals and organizations place high values ​​on moral principles and employ them.

We must make sure that our corporate and private sectors are held ethically accountable. If a person is ethical in their private lives, more than likely they will apply the same type of principles at work. Negligence and unscrupulous behavior are unacceptable and could lead to criminal consequences and be costly to organizations and individuals. Businesses should provide more ethics training in order to help employees and stakeholders clarify their ethical frameworks while practicing self-discipline when making just decisions in difficult circumstances.

Business ethics and social responsibility correlate with profitability. It can affect customer and investor loyalty, employee commitment and customer satisfaction. Corporate governance systematically removes the opportunity for employees to make unethical decisions. An organization's image, corporate reputation and brand cannot be compromised, which could ultimately lead to illegal misconduct if it is. Greed or egotism can be contributing factors that could lead to unethical behavior. By avoiding ethical misconduct, leaders must make decisions to prevent misconduct within the organization. National Ethics Awareness Month is an ideal time to reinforce or put into place a corporate governance plan to make sure all parties are held accountable for decisions that could be costly in the end.

Categories
Ethics

Tyrannosaurus Rexina and the Ethics of Creative Physics

Apparently, the fossil record is telling us that the female Tyrannosaurus Rex was much larger than the male and during mating season he had to tread very carefully. It seems the female needed to consume larger amounts of calcium to produce strong eggs, which also contributed to the extra size of her formidable weaponry. The basic design program of this killer dinosaur paid little attention to the evolution of its tiny arms, but the wishbone structure in the chest suggests that a great evolutionary plan of some sort was slowly moving toward the creation of futuristic bird life.

The evolution of humanity had a seemingly merciless blueprint guiding it toward worship of a loving merciful ethical God. However, intuition to do that eventually did occur amidst a violent claw and tooth prevailing mentality. The present path toward a loving and caring evolutionary direction has atomic weaponry signposts signalling some obsession to share our destiny with the dinosaurs. In order to avoid extinction we can re-examine the original dinosaur blueprint instructions more carefully to understand how to scientifically upgrade our destiny accordingly. The ancient Platonic tradition of Greek philosophy’s Science for Ethical Ends supplied us with the mathematics to do this.

The Greek philosophers, Thales and Pythagoras, travelled to Egypt to study mathematical political ethics from the teachings of the Mystery Schools of Maat, the mythical Goddess for mercy, compassion and justice, who prevented the universe from reverting to chaos. The Egyptian Second Kingdom’s use of sacred geometrical mathematics to incorporate mercy, compassion and justice into political law had been studied by Greek philosophers during the 5th Century BC. The Platonic tradition of Greek philosophy knew that very ancient monsters had become extinct and established a mathematical science to guide ennobling government during the 3rd Century BC, so that human civilisation would not also become extinct.

The engineer Buckminster Fuller derived his synergistic world-view from that mathematics, in contradiction to the Einsteinian world-view, which demands the complete extinction of all life in the universe. Fuller’s book entitled Utopia or Oblivion, was based upon Plato’s spiritual (holographic) sacred geometrical mathematics.

During the 5th Century BC the philosopher of science, Anaxagoras postulated his theory of creation, realising that evolution on earth lacked ethical moral purpose. He considered that an intelligent Creator, used a whirling (gravitation) force to act upon primordial particles in space to make the worlds of our universe, causing them to spin to evolve mind. This God then left our region of the universe in order to create further universes elsewhere. The three universities that followed the Platonic tradition of Greek philosophy set about to fuse ethics into Anaxagoras’ scientific model of reality and used the Egyptian mathematics for mercy, compassion and justice to construct the Western atomistic Science for Ethical Ends. The Ho Kepos university referred to it as the Science of Universal Love, its teachers were called saviours, following the Egyptian mathematical ethic to prevent the universe from reverting to chaos which was based upon love and kindness within family life.

Pythagoras introduced harmonic properties of light into this evolution of ethical consciousness concept. During the 18th and 19th Centuries, several of the philosopher scientists discovering electromagnetic field energy forces, realised that the ancient Pythagorean Music of the Spheres, was describing the existence of universal electromagnetic forces acting to evolve compassionate emotion. By using nanotechnology in the 21st Century to examine the functioning of the molecule of emotion, discovered in 1972 by Dr Candace Pert, the evolution of the endocrine fluids associated with the working of that molecule, demonstrate that the Buckminster Fuller’s ethical mathematics is indeed the basis of an evolving Creative Physics programmed so that humans might choose not to become extinct. As Charles Darwin wrote in his Ascent of Man, the emotion of compassion within humanity is so pronounced that it must have some intrinsic evolutionary purpose.

When Her Majesty Tyrannosaurus Rexina governed the world, her death carried the means to investigate that greater mathematical purpose. The wish bone within that ferocious body was not the only clue telling us that evolutionary information existed from the remains of her existence. We can now measure another part of the great monsters of old, with great mathematical precision, in order to debate mathematically about a more ethical evolutionary purpose associated emanating from the savage existence of prehistoric reality. This mathematical reality links the living process to a far greater reality than the 20th Century Einsteinian world-view could possibly have imagined.

The fatty acids of a dinosaur, which died alongside certain minerals, turned into a substance, which when exposed to cosmic radiation began to form into crystals, such as Jasper. This complex procedure recorded the mineral growth of natural fractal patterns. The geometrical properties of geometrical fractals belong to both a non living and a living process. Modern science accepts that while fractal logic can extend to infinity, the Einsteinian world-view prohibits the living process to be linked to this infinite fractal logic as it considers that eventually all life must be destroyed. On the 18th of February, 2011, Cornell University Library announced a major discovery by two Chinese scientists, Liaofu Luo and Jun Lu. They had used mathematics to explain why the protein dance of life within DNA, called a subatomic jitterbug by Buckminster Fuller, contradicted the Einsteinian world-view universal heat death law. Fuller had correctly predicted that a second life-energy system existed, to entangle itself with Einstein’s genius description of a single universal energy system, governed only by chaos.

When the ancient Greeks fused ethics into Anaxagoras’ intuitive myth of creation, in which God had departed, leaving humans free will to discover its divine purpose they transformed its mathematical structure into a dynamical mathematical logic which extended to infinity, contrary to our present general perception of reality. This ethical act of consciousness can be considered to refer to aspects of the Copenhagen definition of quantum mechanics alluded to within Vedic mathematics. The ancient Egyptians fused such mathematics into a political structure, which the ancient Greeks used to create the science for ethical ends so that humanity could avoid extinction. In contrast to this mathematical act of evolving consciousness, we know that our present day understanding of mathematics can only accelerate global chaos. The three Nobel Prizes awarded for mathematical economic logic in 1994 helped to bring about the present global economic collapse. We have enough mathematical data at our disposal to construct the Fullerene Utopia.

An online compilation of the briefing papers for the U.S. Senate Environment and Pubic Works Commitee during 2000, is entitled Outside-the-Box Technologies, Their Critical Role Concerning Environmental Trends, and the Unnecessary Energy Crisis. Among the points raised is that a mathematics for new technologies, beyond the accelerating chaos of the Einsteinian world-view, must be used to develop new technologies to replace American dependence upon the fossil fuel economy. In 2000 an accurate prediction was made in that in eight years the collapse of the American economic system would begin to bring on a global economic disaster.

Under such conditions. the paper considered that other countries, under such economic stress, will attempt to develop or ally themselves with those who have weapons of mass destruction, in order to avoid the collapse of their various individual regimes. Under those conditions, once one is used, or a threat is perceived that they will be used, then existing defence policies will be put into effect, ensuring the end of civilisation. That is also Buckminster Fuller’s mathematically arrived at state entropic oblivion, derived from the Greek definition of evil as being the property of unformed matter within the atom.

In their online paper entitled Mathematics and Peace: Our Responsibilities, the authors Ubiratan D’Ambbrosio and Sao Paulo address the responsibilities of social peace, environmental peace and military peace, by linking mathematics to the functioning of human behaviour and a mathematical definition of relevant global ethics. The same theme is the basis of the book entitled The 21st Century Renaissance, being published by the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia in liaison with Florence University’s quantum biological New Measurement of Humanity Project. In 2010 the two Italian Director’s of this New Renaissance Project were awarded the Giorgio Napolitano Medal on behalf of the Republic of Italy for their quantum biological discoveries concerning the self organising functioning of universal energies as the basis of quantum biology.

Behaving like a Tyrannosaurus Rex in heat may excite young men learning how to implement computer games of mass destruction but it was not a manly thing of the past. Our educational system must quickly bridge the gap between modern science and the ethics of the Classical Greek Humanities. As the molecular biologist Sir C P Snow warned in his Rede Lecture at Cambridge University in 1959, if we maintain our obsession with the law of Chaos, which Einstein considered to be the premier law of all of the sciences, the civilisation will be destroyed.

© Professor Robert Pope,

Advisor to the President Oceania and Australasia of the Institute for Theoretical Physics and Advanced Mathematics (IFM) Einstein-Galilei

Categories
Ethics

Ethics and Decision Making in Education

When making ethical decisions in education consequensalism is often applied to the kinds of guides to action based theory of relativism. Philosophers and ethicists use the term teleogy, from Greek word telos, meaning end ( Beckner 2004 ). Consequentialism The term was first used for (1) a theory concerning responsibility, but is now commonly used for (2) a theory concerning right and wrong. (1) the view that an agent is equally responsible for the intended consequences of an act and its unintended but foreseen consequences ( Anscombe 1958).

Ethical theories that fall under the classification of consequentialism pose that the rightness or wrongness of any action must be viewed in terms of the consequences that the action produces. In other words, the consequences are generally viewed according to the extent that they serve some intrinsic good. The most common form of consequentialism is utilitarianism (social consequentialism) which proposes that one should act in such a way to produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Consequentialism is the name given to ethical theories that hold that moral right, wrong, and obligation depend solely on the value of the consequences (effects, results) of what we do. Ethical egoism states that moral right, wrong, and obligation depends solely on the value of the consequences for the agent (Brandt, 1959).

Utilitarianism (Lyon 1992) states that moral right, wrong, and obligation depend solely on the value of the consequences for everyone, including both the agent (thereby denying ethical altruism) and everyone else (thereby denying ethical egoism). Consequentialism says that we ought to do whatever maximizes good consequences. It doesn’t in itself matter what kind of thing we do. What matters is that we maximize good results. One popular kind of consequentialism is classical (hedonistic) utilitarianism. This view says that we ought always to do whatever maximizes the balance of pleasure over pain for everyone affected by our action. This view could be based on the golden rule, which leads us to be concerned about the happiness and misery of others. Or it could be based on God’s will, self-evident truths, or our own personal feelings.

Consequentialism’s basic idea is that the ethical status of an act depends on the value of its consequences. (Beckner, 2004). The concept of an act’s consequences is central to the theory. The first characteristic to note about this kind of consequentialism is that it will allow a wide range of states of affairs to count as consequences. Indeed any state of affairs that can properly be called an outcome of an act is one of that act’s consequences. An act’s outcomes are the states of affairs brought about by that act. So, for example, if an act fulfils a promise, the state of affairs of that promise’s being kept is an outcome of that act demands that you act so as to maximize, and the value of consequences in this broad sense. Taking such a broad view of consequences immediately makes available a potentially different set of responses to hypothetical examples.

On the other hand, the opposite of consequentialism is deontologism which ethical position claims that it is possible for us to identify a right act or a justified moral rule in other ways besides considering the goodness or badness of consequences. “The term denotology comes from the Greek words deon, meaning “duty”, and logos, meaning “logic”. With this system of thing, the focis of value is the act or kind of act,” (Pojman 2002, p.107). Deontological moral systems are characterized primarily by a focus upon adherence to independent moral rules or duties. Thus, in order to make the correct moral choices, we simply have to understand what our moral duties are and what correct rules exist which regulate those duties. When we follow our duty, we are behaving morally. When we fail to follow our duty, we are behaving immorally. Deontological moral systems also place some stress on the reasons why certain actions are performed. Thus, simply following the correct moral rules is often not sufficient – instead, we have to have the correct motivations. This would allow a person to not be considered immoral even though they have broken a moral rule, but only so long as they and obligations must be determined objectively and absolutely, not subjectively.

Some examples of deontological ethical theories include: divine command: one of the most common forms of deontological moral theories is those which derive their set of moral obligations from a deity. An action is morally correct whenever it is in agreement with the rules and duties established by God. Duty Theories: an action is morally right if it is in accord with some list of duties and obligations. Rights Theories is an action that is morally right if it adequately respects the rights which all humans (or at least all members of society) have. This is also sometimes referred to as Libertarianism, the political philosophy that people should be legally free to do whatever they wish so long as their actions do not impinge upon the rights of others. Contractarianism: an action is morally right if it is in accordance with the rules that rational moral agents would agree to observe upon entering into a social relationship (contract) for mutual benefits. Finally, the monistic deontology is when the action is morally right if it agrees with some single deontological principle which guides all other subsidiary principles.

Thus, McCain R. (1999) describes a mixed- consequentialism has the rational and ethically acceptable. To be rational is to advance the views to which one is committed; to be moral is to advance the views to which one ought to be committed. Mixed-consequentialism refers to moral decisions that may not depend on the consequences all of the time. Mixed-consequentialism involves the reasons for the rightness of actions in situations. Mixed-consequentialism is a combination of both consequentialism and deontologism and it only stands to reason that each approach has application in varying circumstances. “The specific situation and varying circumstances must be carefully considered and decisions adjusted accordingly”(Beckner, 2004, p. 151).

In sum, institutions are left with the perplexing thought which is should they make decisions that are only and solely connected to the results of the action or should institutions consider the virtues and character of the person making the decision. If institutions follow consequentialism entirely, then they can make any decision that augurs for the common good and has good consequences despite whether the decision is impelled by the individual or any specific concern for the individual who is making it. WE are separating the decision from the person.

References

Anscombe E. (1958) Modern Moral Philosophy”, The Anscombe Society

Brandt, R. B., 1959, Ethical Theory (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall).

Beckner , W. (2004). Ethics for educational leaders. New York: Allyn & Bacon

Lyons, D “Utilitarianism,” Encyclopedia of Ethics, edited by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1992), Vol. II, pp. 1261-68

McCain, Roger A. (1999) ‘Deontology, Consequentialism and Rationality’, Review of Social Economy, 49(2), Summer, pp. 168-195. [*0]

Pojman, L. (2002), Ethics: Discovering right and wrong, (4th Edition) Belmont, CA Wadsworth Publishing Comapnay