Hopefully, before selling a business, you meet with a CPA or tax accountant and get an estimate on how much of your proceeds will be going directly to Uncle Sam if you pay them in a lump sum at time of sale. You don't want to save this surprise for after all is said and done, because not only will it most likely be a shock, but you will have given up your chance to do anything about it.
Planning is everything. For this article I will assume you are not doing a 1031 business exchange, that is selling your business and buying another similar business taking into consideration all the IRS guidelines and timelines. It's pretty rare to see this, but it can defer all of your capital gains tax if done correctly. A 1031 Exchange is more commonly implemented with real estate.
Depending on how the business is sold, the gains may be taxed as long term capital gain, short term capital gain, ordinary income, etc. and if you are selling an asset in a C-Corp you may face double taxation. So, the idea is to minimize your tax bill and maximize your proceeds no matter what situation you are in.
One option is with a Self Directed Installment Sale. The structure must be in place before the buy / sell agreement is signed. The gist is to receive the sale proceeds in installments and only pay capital gains tax as you receive the income. This has the effect of allowing the majority of money you would have paid immediately in taxes to continue earning compounded interest for you for many years, thus increasing your bottom line by a significant amount.
The details are a bit too complex to fully outline in a short article, but both an LLC and a Trust are created for you and set up meet IRS criteria for favorable taxation of installment sales. Your asset gets transferred to the LLC prior to sale, and your buyer purchases from your LLC. The trust buys the shares of your LLC from you via an installment agreement and you pay taxes on your gain only as you receive the payments.
You, the seller, are able to control when the payments begin and how long they will be spread out. This allows for maximum flexibility to control your income, and plan for future tax savings as well. Since your buyer paid cash in exchange for your property, you are not dependent on them to make the installment payments and you have transferred the risk of refinance or default. This is done by using an independent third party administrator and your money is safely invested in a principle protected insurance product to be used solely for the purpose of paying the installments.
If you pass on before receiving all of the payments due, the remainder of the installment payments pass to the beneficiaries of your choice.
Seeing an example of a taxed sale vs. a Self Directed Installment Sale side by side will show you how much of a difference in overall return this strategy will provide. This can make the process of the sale more palatable and provide a dependable income stream for retirement.
The tax benefit of this approach is similar to your 401K or IRA account. You reduce your current income by the amount of your annual contribution and thus defer the tax you would have paid on that income amount. Those funds are invested in stocks and bonds and grow in value, sometimes dramatically, for the period before you retire and start taking distributions. When you start distributions, the amount is treated as ordinary income and you are taxed at your much lower (you are no longer working and earning a big salary) income tax rate at the time.
The Self Directed Installment Sale allows you to similarly defer your capital gains tax from the sale of your business. Instead of paying all of your capital gains at time of sale, you set up your SDIS to pay out your sale proceeds over time. If you pay all of your capital gains tax at time of sale, that money is gone forever. However, with this vehicle, you spread your receipt of the sales proceeds out over, 15 years for example. When you receive your distribution, you are then taxed for the portion of that distribution that is attributed to the capital gains – generally about 15%.
The difference in after tax proceeds are dramatic and are demonstrated by a complex analysis called an illustration. I will try in an abbreviated fashion, however, to demonstrate the potential impact. If you sold your business and you had a capital gain of $ 3.46 million, your lump sum capital gains tax payment at a 15% rate would be $ 519,000. In the SDIS you would keep the entire sale proceeds of $ 3.46 million and take distributions over a 20 year period or whatever period you chose. You receive an annual payment over 20 years, that would consist of 1/20 of the principal, 1/20 of the capital gains, plus investment returns.
If we did an illustration of this case and compared selling the business and paying all the capital gains up front and invested the remaining proceeds in a 6.85% compound growth portfolio versus the SDIS paying 1/20 of the capital gains annually, you would gain an $ 831,000 advantage in after tax proceeds. Not to bad for a little advanced planning.